NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO TEXTILES. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIBRES, SPINNING AND TECHNICAL WEAVING

Nanotechnology and technical fibres for the development of products and industrial processes: the use of nanotechnology helps in the development of enhanced textiles with a range of technical properties which include: anti-bacterial, fungicidal, hydrophobic, hydrophilic and nano-coated fabrics. There are also thermally resistant, conductive, anti-static, breathable, high-strength, bulletproof and camouflaged fabrics and those which have been sensorised to create Smart textiles. The Institute is fully equipped with all the experimental plant and necessary infrastructure to develop the following lines of research.

Nanotechnology applied to textiles

I. Functionalisation via compounding. The additivation of thermoplastic matrices with nanoparticles
The formulation of compounds or masterbatches for spinning.
Thermoplastic matrices:
• Nano-additives: metals, oxides metallic matrices, silicates (clays), pigments, carbon materials and microcapsules.
• Other additives: CB, microspheres, PCM’s, conventional pigments, photo and thermochromic, phosphorescent and fluorescent additives.

II. Functionalisation via coating. Functional coatings on fibres

• Melt-coating to apply a molten polymer to the surface of a yarn.
• Dip-coating by immersion.

 

➢ Technical melt spinning

I. Spinning multifilament yarns. Creating a continuous filament
The development of multifilament fibres using melt spinning.
• Continuous working temperatures of up to 430⁰C and winding at speeds of up to 6,000m/min.
• The ability to create any combination of dtex/filaments of POY, FOY and FDY.
• Bicomponent technology (core-sheath, side by side, segmented and islands in the sea).
• Special cross sections: circular, trilobal, accumulated and hollow
• Conventional polymers (PP, PET, PA), biopolymers (PLA, PHB, TPS), recycled and renewable polymers (rPET, bioPET, scPLA, bioPA).
• Technical polymers (PPS, PEI, PEEK, LOP), other polymers (TPE, TPVA, SMP’s, PDO).

II. Monofilament spinning
Development of melt-spun monofilament yarn.
• Continuous working temperatures of up to 420 ⁰C. winding speeds of up to 250 m/min
• High stretch capacity
• Fine titles (up to 50 den)
• Bicomponent technology (core-sheath and side-by-side)
• All types of thermoplastic polymers

III. Spinning
• Development of flat tape
• Optimisation of thickness/width ratio
• Bicomponent technology

➢ Textile processing technology
Processes and products in the spinning subsector value chain.

I. Air-texturing (TASLAN). ATY yarn
For PP, PET and PA in a wide range of titles.

II. Friction texturing. DTY yarn
Texturized by false twist
For PP, PET, PA and other polymers

III. Complementary operations
Twisting and commingling
Crimping
Cutting for staple fibres

IV. Plain weaving
To develop prototype flat fabrics with different weaves and densities.

V. Warp knitting
To develop prototype knitted fabrics on double needle bed warp machines with 8 pattern guide bars and 5 feeders which can work with 2 gauges depending on the article (15 and 20).

VI. Splitting; from multi to monofilament.
A splitting system to convert high-denier multifilament yarn (>20) into individual monofilaments.
➢ Nanotechnology applied to textiles